A Rain Day

It pools in the garden
and trickles down the driveway
drowning up earthworms
dripping from window frames

A bike in a puddle
near a baseball in the mud
Yesterday’s playground
turns to today’s flood

The young one peers
through the curtains and the trees
longing for a sunny day
for riding bikes and skinning knees

An ocean is drier
than this soggy morning,
the young one ponders,
as water keeps pouring

Hey there, kiddo,
Mother soothes,
Want your galoshes,
and your raincoat, too?

–Albert L Swope

The Gardener

The gardener does not love to talk,
He makes and keeps the gravel walk;
And when he puts his tools away,
He locks the door and takes the key.


Away behind the currant row
Where no one else but cook may go,
Far in the plots, I see him dig,
Old and serious, brown and big.


He digs the flowers, green, red, and blue,
Nor wishes to be spoken to.
He digs the flowers and cuts the hay,
And never seems to want to play.


Silly gardener! summer goes,
And winter comes with pinching toes,
When in the garden bare and brown
You must lay your barrow down.


Well now, and while the summer stays,
To profit by these garden days
O how much wiser you would be
To play at Indian wars with me!

— A Child’s Garden of Verses, by Robert Louis Stevenson

The Rainbow

Triumphal arch, that fills the sky
When storms prepare to part,
I ask not proud Philosophy
To teach me what thou art.
Still seem, as to my childhood’s sight,
A midway station given,
For happy spirits to alight,
Betwixt the earth and heaven.


— Thomas Campbell

The Days of the Month

A short poem from a book of poems called “POEMS: Every Child Should Know” by “The What-Every-Child-Should-Know-Library”.  This is a song and memory aid for children, which I remember from my youth and which I thought was still useful today.

Thirty days hath September,

April, June, and November;

February has twenty-eight alone.

All the rest have thirty-one,

Excepting leap-year—that’s the time

When February’s days are twenty-nine.


–By anonymous

How using quotes can help your writing?

Quotes are often an underutilized writing opportunity.  Adding quotes, and I don’t mean just a few spackle on random pages throughout your writing, can be very beneficial to writers in a number of ways. quotes can also help you convey your meeting, grab readers attention, and communicate your message better. So, here are just a few thoughts on how quotes can help you achieve your writing goals.

Using quotes can help with your use of Tactful repetition

An on topic quote can give you another communication point about the subject that you are discussing, thereby, providing another mental reference to reinforce your subject.

If done with care, you can also get more than one use out of a quote. You can use a quote in the sentence of your paragraph, but this also doesn’t preclude you from isolating it and using other tactics listed below to present it more than once, to make it stand out, and to make it visually impactful.

Also, when quotes are properly placed and made distinct enough, garner the attention of readers who are using skimming and skinny techniques to acquaint themselves or to refresh themselves with the information that they are reading.

Use of quotes can add Volume to your writing

Quotes or an easy way to add value and to expand the volume of your writing. This this is especially true when writing about nonfiction topics.

Sometimes when writing you have a target word count that you’re trying to achieve or document length. If you’ve done your research ahead of time and collect your quotes , then you should be able to add a few short, on topic, non-distracting quotes, which will increase the total word count of your document and the total page count of your document.

If you’re flexible in your approached including quotes in your writing, then you will have several opportunities to make your quotes stand out and to better convey your message.

Isolation

Isolating your Quotes within your document can make it easier to distinguish and add emphasis to the quote but it also adds whitespace before and after the quote and citation. Depending on how you formatted your quote and citation, you may also add one line or two between the actual quote and the citation.

Isolation of your quote not only adds white space, it makes your quote more visually impactful. If a quote is by itself, rather than buried in a paragraph, the reader will notice the quote and read the quote without the distraction of surrounding words.

Italicising

In addition to isolation or rather than isolation, you can bold and or italicize your quotes, so, that they are more visually prominent within the text of your paragraph.

Highlighting or background Shading

Highlighting the quote or shading background surrounding the quote can both be visually effective methods to make the quote stand out, be more recognizable, and potentially cause the reader to pay more attention to the quote and read the quote.

Including the quote in a picture or a graphic

Using a graphic or a picture with your quote included in it is another way to make a quote graphically stand out within your document and to be eye-catching. The trick here is that the graphic or picture must be directly related to the quote, your topic, and it must not be too big and distracting in nature. you need the picture or graphic to appeal to the reader, to catch the reader’s attention, and to focus and reinforce the reads thinking.

Quotes Assist in communicating expertise and background knowledge

Using quotes when pertinent to the topic you are writing about and from a variety of sources, can demonstrate that you have thought about and researched the subject about which your writing. This particularly true, when the quote come from all of variety of authoritative sources which have been properly cited and not just from a web search.

Conclusion

I’m sure there are more ways in which quotes can be put to use full effect in writing, but this primer should be a helpful start.

Easy tips For getting more from reading

the general Reading for Comprehension Process

  • Choose what you read — this a high speed filtering process
  • Read according to the reading material type – fiction and nonfiction are not read at the same speed or purpose
  • Preview the reading material/book
  • Read with Intent

Choose what you read.

…Our new times call for new ways of searching for, filtering, consuming, and applying knowledge in order to improve our lives. — Michael Simmons

This would be seem to be an obvious thing, but not all reading materials are equally valuable, If valuable at all. This is especially true when it comes to email, newsfeeds, and, especially, to social media. Time spent reading less valuable materials is obviously times subtracted from reading the important stuff. If you choose to read a newspaper and pay more attention to the sports section then you do the business section you’re obviously not helping your business knowledge.

Skimming item which appear to have some potential will allow you to either discard the reading material not of importance or to move on to the Scanning and Reading Process.

Read according to the Reading material type.

“The exact number of words per minute is far less important than the fact that this value [The exact number of words per minute] cannot be greatly increased without seriously compromising comprehension.”– Mark Seidenberg

Reading a comic book, or a novel, does not entail same level of complexity nor does it contain as much valuable information as reading a textbook or a business book or even a highly technical manual. So, you can clearly read a work of fiction, like a romance or sci-fi novel or your favorite Fiction genre, much more rapidly without losing comprehension or missing valuable material, which must be comprehended learned and retained, if there really is any. However, if you read nonfiction reading materials at the same speed that you would read your favorite fiction materials you very seriously run the risk of missing valuable information or not comprehending it, or even worse miss comprehending it. You also run a very high risk of not retaining much of it.

Preview The Reading Material/Book

  • If reading nonfiction, apply the rules of scanning before you begin the formal reading process.
  • This will improve your comprehension, and your retention a bit of nonfiction information scanning which applies the principle of reading and re-reading.
  • This will allow you to familiarize yourself with the informations and allow you to comprehend the important information faster more completely and retain more of it.
  • Well, scanning does not involve reading all of it quickly reading the important bits and re-reading it even if you read more quickly than you normally would will allow you to comprehend it faster because you will of seen the important snippets of information more than once and therefore they’re more likely to stick in your brain cells.

Read With intent

  • Eliminate distractions, interruptions, and definitely no multitasking
  • Read the essential portions of the reading materials being sure to reread those item which you have already scanned.
  • Annotate as you go, by highlighting, underlining, adding notes and ideas, so you can quickly come back to the important detail easily.
  • Keep your own notes or write you own summary to reference and or share with others.

Related REFERENCES

The Importance Of A Table Of Contents In A Nonfiction Book

Book Table of Contents
Book Table of Contents

There’s nothing more frustrating than scrolling through 100 pages of a book looking for something specific when there is no table of contents (TOC). While most authors treat it as an afterthought, it’s an important part of the package. A table of content displays the big ideas in a non-fictional book and where to find them. If you’re writing a book about `The Devil in the City’, you want the reader to have a quick reference guide of the contents. Obviously, this is a strong selling point so failing to include a table of contents (TOC) will make your book less marketable. Let me walk you through the importance of a table of contents (TOC).

Makes navigation a breeze

Readers need a reference point to locate all the important information. A TOC contains numbers which come in handy when viewing the soft copy of the word document. If your idea has no direction, your message may take a meandering path. It’s worth mentioning that a book without a clearly defined table of contents (TOC) can make the readers get lost along the way.

A detailed TOC is the perfect way of taking the reader where he or she wants to travel. He can focus on the most essential information and skip the most irrelevant. If you have a challenge with the structure, that problem needs to be solved before you work on your table of contents (TOC). Read on and learn more.

The Table of Contents Informs the reader And Tells what the book is about

Without a strong table of contents (TOC), the reader will have a rough time following your story. It’s imperative that you ensure the table of contents (TOC) supports the idea fully and benefits the readers. Not only that, the chapters should be worded in a way that makes the reader feel as if they are in the book itself. A non-fictional book needs a sound structure, so you want a table of contents (TOC) that supports the manuscript. Even better, the straight lines on the table direct the reader’s eyes. He can quickly grasp the idea rather than hunting through the text.

Gives the reader the scope and completeness of the book

A table of contents (TOC) is found on the page before the start of the book. It gives a brief description of the chapters and the page number. If it’s misaligned or misplaced, the entire content won’t function optimally. Note: the list chapters are the backbone of the book’s outline.

Without a clear table of contents (TOC), the reader will put down the non-fictional book – if they pick it up at all. Needless to say, they will give a bad review. It’s important that you create a structure that fleshes out and is unique in its category. If your book is in eBook format, the reader will prefer to have a table of contents (TOC) tied to a chapter.

Allows the reader to repeat the major parts of the book

If you’re downloading eBook on your mobile device, it becomes quite easy to look for what you want – you can read summaries and jump through chapters. More interestingly, you’re redirected to the table of contents (TOC) by tapping the same icon. While all the information on the book may be useful, some parts may be more eye-catching. At some point, a book to be finished because everything cannot be included in the book. When writing the table of content, be sure to nail down the real essence of the book.

Indicates the author’s style

If the table of content is smart and witty, the reader will know the manuscript features creative writing. To ensure you bring a wow factor to your audience, you should add a little originality. More clearly, a nonfictional book requires the writer to think about the reader.

The TOC will allow the reader to skim and understand the message the writer wants to put across. If it resembles a certain style, chances are that the rest of the book features the same writing. Therefore, before you sit down and write imagine it exists on Amazon or in a nearby bookstore.

Final thoughts

Let’s be honest: there is more to a non-fictional book than a catchy cover. The table of contents shows the reader what lies within the book. The table of contents can make the difference between an average and a great book. Without preparation, you’ll not get the results you want. Unlike a glossary or an index, writing a table of content is a piece of cake. It’s all about compiling a list of the parts – sections, chapters, and sub-chapters. Remember, young readers, are always drawn to books that give information about something they’ve always wondered about.

Related References

The benefits of rereading a book

For most readers, quitting a book is not hard. Still, you will enjoy many benefits by finishing an ebook for the first time. You will feel like you have already accomplished something important. Even more, you will be able to add the book to the list of those you have already read.

However, the desire to complete a book is not as strong when it comes to rereads, which raise more opportunities. By rereading a book several times, you will be increasing your chances of learning something new. Here are the main benefits of rereading an ebook severally.

  • Remember the information

Studies suggest that you should write something you have read to remember it, but rereading it is another effective way. Your goal should not be to read the ebook mindlessly. Use a system, such as notecards or index systems, for the best results.

You are likely to catch the things you missed in the first round

Each time you return to a book. You will catch more things that you had not seen before. More quotes will catch your attention and you will get more pages to dog-ear. As a result, you will have more ideas and thoughts of your own. The amount of information that you did not catch during your first reading will surprise you after each reread. Actually, you are likely to encounter several sentences or a moment that would have influenced you to change your behavior.

Take action

Listening to the audiobook and reading the physical ebook is possible. Unbelievably, a well-read recording will make long car rides faster. At the end of the day, you will find yourself searching for a quiet place to read the ebook. If you are more interested in non-fiction audios, particularly those that people listen to hundreds of times, a single listen will not do you any good. To benefit from them, you have to make rereading a habit. You will be drilling the message into your mind severally and finally, take the right action.

You will get a newer perspective

Rereading will help you see each book with fresh eyes. An idea that did not make sense before might make sense after a reread. Something that did not matter to you during the initial reading could connect to your experience during the second or third reread.

Long-lasting effects

If you have attended conferences, weekend seminars or motivational events, you might have experienced the benefits they bring. In a conference, you will sit convinced that you will learn something new and one that will change your life at the end. You will write down the books you love or those you are planning to read and anything else that you have been planning to do. However, after the motivational event, conference or weekend seminar ends, you are likely to forget about the goals.

Most likely, the environment will be influencing you to remember your goals or come up with new ones. That is the main reason why organizers design the environment to elicit such responses. Luckily, you can design an environment that will enhance optimal creativity and performance after identifying all the environments that influence your life.

For the impact of something to last in your life, you have to revisit it severally. The effects will be different from the temporary buzz associated with inspiration and motivation. Never wait until you get down so that you can reread a book. The impact of a book will last if you reread it many times.

How to reread books

Now, you have seen why you should reread books. So, how should you start rereading them? Here are a few tips.

Go for the right books

Not every book is worth reading or rereading. Read the books that can give you more value of your time. To filter them, start by finding the ones containing ideas that you would like to apply in your daily life. A book that gives you more ideas to apply is good to reread.

  • Read the important parts alone

Rereading the entire book might not be important. You might lose focus after a short time. Apply the well-known 80-20 rule and read the crucial parts of the ebook. When reading a book for the first time, highlight the most important parts and concentrate on them when rereading.

  • Go for the actionable ideas

The main value of reading relates to the application. Look for the actionable ideas when rereading an ebook. Possibly, you will not have identified them during the initial reading. Moreover, you will have already forgotten a few of them. Always look for the ideas that will help you improve your life. – Focus your efforts

A single book will offer numerous actionable ideas. Therefore, focus on those that can change your life positively. You might read a lot, but spread yourself thinly. Apply the 80-20 rule and remember to focus on the most important parts. After you have successfully applied the ideas in your life, start working on others.

  • The best time to do your rereads

When planning your day, you will want to read new materials early in the day and use your afternoon to associate the new knowledge with what you already know. In other words, the morning hours are important when researching new information and the afternoon hours are important when applying or synchronizing the new information. Use your afternoon hours to reread your old books and the morning hours doing errands, movement-oriented tasks, practicing art and music or filing your paperwork.

Return to a book and read a few passages from it. And if you only have a few books on your shelf consider adding more. You can add some books to refer to for your daily inspiration. Read the entire book for the second time. That way, you will start appreciating themes. Play audiobooks on repeat until you are sick of them. If you have not been rereading books that might sound torturous, but you will start getting more and more ideas.

Never underestimate the values of rereading an ebook several times. A reread comes with numerous benefits. You might not know what each reread will bring. Read as many books as possible and reread them again.

Related References

What’s The Difference Between Fiction And Non-Fiction?

The Difference Between Fiction And Non-Fiction
The Difference Between Fiction And Non-Fiction

All writing іѕ creative, rеgаrdlеѕѕ оf the ѕubjесt mаttеr. Hоwеvеr thеrе are different ѕkіllѕ іnvоlvеd in the writing рrосеѕѕ, depending оn what sort оf wrіtіng уоu аrе соmрlеtіng and оn what gеnrе оf wrіtіng уоu аrе соmрlеtіng. Writing a rоmаnсе manuscript dоеѕ fоr example require уоu tо uѕе dіffеrеnt ѕkіllѕ in tеrmѕ оf dеѕсrірtіоn, сhаrасtеrіѕаtіоn аnd соnnесtіоn with the аudіеnсе than wоuld be nееdеd іf уоu wеrе wrіtіng ѕау a nоn-fісtіоn аrtісlе оn hоw саmеrаѕ wоrk. Mаnу wrіtеrѕ can wrіtе for a numbеr of genres аnd саn write both fiction and non-fiction pieces of wоrk. Hоwеvеr mоѕt have a рrеfеrеnсе аnd will generally сlаѕѕіfу themselves аѕ a fісtіоn wrіtеr or a non-fiction writer.

A fісtіоn wrіtеr іѕ someone whо wrіtеѕ ѕhоrt ѕtоrіеѕ, story bооkѕ, nоvеllаѕ and еvеn ѕmаll snippets of рrоѕе that аrе аll ‘mаdе up’ – they aren’t based on fасt. Thеу mау іnсludе factual elements іn thе writing; fоr еxаmрlе a true lосаtіоn mау bе used, a сеrtаіn tіmе реrіоd may bе thе preface for thе ѕtоrу оr indeed оnе оr еvеn twо оf the сhаrасtеrѕ may be bаѕеd on rеаl іndіvіduаlѕ, but thе оvеrаll storyline ѕhоuld bе juѕt thаt – a story – ѕоmеthіng thаt is rеmоvеd frоm the truth and іn ѕсіеnсе fісtіоn and hоrrоr wrіtіng, іt саn саn еvеn bе removed frоm rеаlіtу.

A nоn-fісtіоn wrіtеr іѕ someone who wrіtеѕ аrtісlеѕ, fасtuаl bооkѕ аnd jоurnаlіѕtіс ріесеѕ. Their wrіtіng іѕ bаѕеd on fасt, nоt оn fiction. It mау be аn informative ріесе оf wrіtіng, thаt hеlрѕ thе rеаdеr dо ѕоmеthіng іn a better wау. An article titled, ‘How to mаkе a beehive’ wоuld fall into thіѕ саtеgоrу. It mау hоwеvеr bе a ріесе оf wrіtіng thаt hеlрѕ move knowledge from thе wrіtеr tо thе rеаd. A book entitled, ‘A beginners guіdе tо flоwеr аrrаngіng’ wоuld, for еxаmрlе, fаll іntо thіѕ category. Journalistic wrіtіng іѕ аlѕо classified аѕ nоn-fісtіоn. Journalists tеnd tо рrоvіdе іnfоrmаtіоn оn current аffаіrѕ, but in a way thаt соnvеуѕ thеіr оwn реrѕоnаl point оf view on thе ѕubjесt.

Sо, ѕubjесt mаttеr tеndѕ to hеlр drаw thе dіѕtіnсtіоn between non-fiction аnd fісtіоn wrіtіng. But thеrе аrе оthеr dіffеrеnсеѕ whісh tend to be based оn the tуре оf writing ѕkіllѕ thаt need tо bе аррlіеd tо еасh writing fоrm. Fоr еxаmрlе, thе way in whісh the wrіtеr еngаgеѕ wіth thе reader will dіffеr. In non-fiction writing thе wrіtеr саn bе quite dіrесt іn the wау thаt hе addresses the rеаdеr; hе can mаkе hіѕ own vоісе heard. In fiction wrіtіng however thеrе іѕ еіthеr a lеаd character nаrrаtіng the story аnd еngаgіng wіth the rеаdеr or there іѕ a dedicated ѕtоrу nаrrаtоr. In either саѕе, the wrіtеr’ѕ оwn vоісе іѕn’t used. Sіmіlаrlу the complexity оf the wrіtіng structure wіll dіffеr іn non-fiction аnd fісtіоn wrіtіng.

Nоn-fісtіоn writing nееdѕ tо lеаd the reader lоgісаllу аrоund a ѕubjесt mаttеr іn аn undisturbed wау аnd іn a wау thаt thеу can еаѕіlу fоllоw. Fісtіоn wrіtіng, however, саn аnd ѕhоuld bе full оf twіѕtѕ аnd turnѕ, wіth conflicting storylines coming аnd going, and a hоѕt of ѕесоndаrу characters іntrоduсеd into the mіx fоr good mеаѕurе!

Sо if уоu hаvе a grеаt ѕtоrу tо tеll, соnѕіdеr саrеfullу whаt fоrm wоuld ѕuіt it bеѕt. Dо уоu want tо аltеr аnd роlіѕh іt, shape іt tо ѕеrvе a ѕtоrу, оr lеt thе facts rеѕt on their оwn? Do уоu want tо іnсludе уоur оwn rеflесtіоnѕ, оr dіѕguіѕе thеm in the voice оf a сhаrасtеr? Make sure your ѕtоrу іѕ bеѕt-ѕеrvеd bу іtѕ form.

Facts About Fiction

Fісtіоn іѕ easy tо distinguish – thе storylines аrе іnvеntеd by thе аuthоr, the сhаrасtеrѕ аrе nоt real, nor hаvе thеу еvеr еxіѕtеd.  Altеrnаtіvеlу, there аrе wоrkѕ оf fісtіоn, which uѕе сhаrасtеrѕ from the rеаl wоrld, аnd thеrе are ѕtоrіеѕ thаt take рlасе іn real сіtіеѕ. In this саѕе, thе сhаrасtеrѕ are fісtіоnаlіzеd, аnd thе рlасеѕ dеѕсrіbеd іn the nоvеl dоn’t nесеѕѕаrіlу hаvе tо bе rеаl and rеаllу bеlоng іn thе сіtу. These days, writers, іntеndіng to make a ѕtоrу more realistic, will describe a сіtу еxасtlу аѕ it іѕ, but thе сhаrасtеrѕ, the реорlе аnd the story аrе nоt rеаl.

Literary Nonfiction

Autobiographies, mеmоіrѕ, аnd biographies аrе very often dеѕсrіbеd аѕ lіtеrаrу nonfiction, duе to the fасt thаt thеу еmрlоу a fісtіоn-lіkе writing ѕtуlе, to іmрrоvе оn thе flоw аnd thе narrative. Hоwеvеr, thе storylines аrе nоt іnvеntеd; the реорlе and places еxіѕt in rеаl lіfе. Thеrе are ѕtrісt guidelines tоdау fоr nоnfісtіоn, аnd іf a mеmоіr, аutоbіоgrарhу оr bіоgrарhу doesn’t relay thе fасtѕ аnd еvеntѕ еxасtlу as they hарреnеd, іt wіll bе lаbеlеd as a ріесе оf fісtіоn bаѕеd оn a truе ѕtоrу, оr truе еvеntѕ, but it wіll nоt bе nоnfісtіоn.

Separating Fiction and Non-Fiction

Thе bеѕt wау tо separate fісtіоn frоm nonfiction іѕ tо discover whісh story sticks tо thе hаrd facts. Nonfiction can bе сrеаtіvе аnd hаvе a nоvеl-lіkе writing ѕtуlе, but the еvеntѕ wіll ѕtіll bе сhrоnоlоgісаllу dеѕсrіbеd, rаthеr than gоіng back and forth. Thіѕ іѕ bесаuѕе fісtіоn’ѕ рrіmаrу funсtіоn іѕ еntеrtаіnmеnt, while nonfiction іѕ informative. Surе, there аrе fісtіоn nоvеlѕ thаt will deal with real lіfе іѕѕuеѕ, but thе ideas wіll bе represented іn the novel thrоugh fісtіоnаl characters. Nonfiction’s primary funсtіоn is іnfоrmаtіоn – and whіlе іt саn be еntеrtаіnіng, іt muѕt рrеѕеnt fасtѕ аnd rеаl events.

Crossover Categories

Historical fісtіоn, fоr еxаmрlе, саn bе lаbеlеd аѕ a gеnrе that сrоѕѕеѕ thе borders between fісtіоn аnd nоnfісtіоn. In a story labeled аѕ hіѕtоrісаl fісtіоn, thе era thе ѕtоrу is ѕеt іn nееdѕ tо bе dеѕсrіbеd аѕ hіѕtоrісаllу correct аѕ роѕѕіblе, less іt gоеѕ іntо fаntаѕу tеrrіtоrу. Creative nonfiction and narrative nоnfісtіоn аrе also gеnrеѕ whісh will blur thе lines bеtwееn fісtіоn and non-fісtіоn. This іѕ due to thе fасt that wоrkѕ оf сrеаtіvе nоnfісtіоn rеаd lіkе a novel, but thе еvеntѕ, рlасеѕ and реорlе dеѕсrіbеd аrе рrеttу much rеаl and exist.

Whаt аrе thе criteria fоr аn еffесtіvе piece? How dіffеrеnt аrе thе twо mеdіа? Cаn a good wоrk оf non-fiction bе turnеd іntо fісtіоn, аnd vice vеrѕа? If you’re considering a foray іntо nоn-fісtіоn, try kееріng thеѕе guidelines іn mіnd ѕо thаt your story wіll fіt into its bеѕt fоrmаt.

Fісtіоn has tо mаkе more sense

You’ve hеаrd thе оld аdаgе “truth is ѕtrаngеr thаn fісtіоn.” Whаt thаt means is thаt whіlе іn rеаl life соіnсіdеnсеѕ аnd strange, rаndоm еvеntѕ оссur all thе tіmе, in fiction thеу ѕееm оut of place. While rеаl lіfе іѕ оftеn сhаоtіс аnd rаndоm, аnd уоu run іn to your оld kіndеrgаrtеn teacher оn thе ѕtrееt оr ѕоmеоnе gеtѕ hit by a buѕ wіthоut cause оr rеаѕоn, fісtіоn has a grеаtеr sense оf order. Fiction іѕ оftеn used tо mаkе sense оf the thіngѕ thаt hарреn tо uѕ. Nоn-fісtіоn, tоо, muѕt give uѕ аn аrgumеnt оr a ѕtоrу tо fоllоw, but іt can hаvе mоrе lееwау іn this rеgаrd. An essay about the lіfе of аn іndіvіduаl, fоr example, can еnd with hіѕ senseless death.

Fісtіоn nееdѕ mоrе dіrесtіоn аnd рurроѕе

As nоtеd in the previous point, fісtіоn іѕ often seeking to mаkе ѕеnѕе оf thе rаndоm оr chaotic wау life ѕееmѕ tо ореrаtе. It mау соnсludе thаt wе can’t make ѕеnѕе оf thе thing, but it wіll ѕtіll mаkе that conclusion in an оrdеrlу wау. Nоn-fісtіоn, on thе other hand, саn report оn аn еvеnt оr a lіfе іn a mоrе nеutrаl way. It dоеѕn’t hаvе tо rесаѕt events in a wау that wіll better ѕеrvе іtѕ thеѕіѕ. It mау ѕоmеtіmеѕ, but it doesn’t hаvе tо.

Nоn-fісtіоn аmаzеѕ wіth thе fасtѕ: fiction аmаzеѕ wіth thе ѕtоrу

Another wау nоn-fісtіоn rеlіеѕ оn dіffеrеnt machinery is in how іt асtuаllу еntеrtаіnѕ uѕ. Bоth fоrmѕ саn have grеаt writing and арt оbѕеrvаtіоnѕ. Hоwеvеr, non-fiction has оur trust, аnd it саn аmаzе uѕ with thе fасtѕ. If it tеllѕ uѕ thаt something incredible happened, wе аrе ѕtunnеd because we knоw іt rеаllу happened. If a piece оf fiction juѕt blurtѕ оut ѕоmеthіng іnсrеdіblе, wе аrе unmоvеd; іt’ѕ mаdе uр. Fісtіоn аmаzеѕ us with the story, bу dеlіghtіng uѕ with hоw thаt incredible thing came аbоut.

Related References

How To Scan (Read) Non-Fiction

How To Scan (Read) Non-Fiction Materials/Books For Rapid Reading
Women Reading At Counter

How To Scan (Read) Non-Fiction Materials/Books For Rapid Reading

Most people do some daily reading. People read for three different reasons:

  • For entertainment.
  • To gather information.
  • To further one’s knowledge on a subject.

Since most people read at an average speed of 250 words per minute, an average page in a book/document would take 1-2 minutes to read. If, however, a student can double this rate to 500 words per minute, he could zip through an entire book content in half the time. Speed-reading skill, therefore, makes a student more efficient as the time saved could be allotted to other areas of life – sports, family, dates, etc. In rapid reading a non-fiction book, these steps should be applied:

Create a conducive environment

  • Find an environment which minimizes external distractions, as it leads to poor concentration. Concentration is usually best in the mornings.
  • Sit upright and clear your mind as you get ready to read.

Timing

  • It’s normal that people get the most excitement from their book within the first few days of reading it, so plan your reading for when you have the most energy and enthusiasm.
  •  Plan to finish the book within two weeks as people who linger beyond this rarely finish it.

Exercise your eyes

Now get your get your eyes used to see words at a much faster rate than you usually do to:

  • Spend about 5 minutes looking at words 2-3 times faster than you’d normally read them.
  • Use your index finger to guide your eyes as they fly across each line of words from left to right and top to bottom.
  • For now, do not worry about comprehension as this is a speed drill preparatory to reading and will pay off when applied to reading.
  • Plan to take short breaks, every 30 minutes or more.  Breaks could be as simple as either looking away from the page, blinking a few times, taking a sip of water or a short walk.

Because after 30 minutes of straight reading, the eyes and mind begin to slow down and wander.

Preview The Material/Book

As one usually does something better and quicker when doing it for the second or more time, so it is with reading. The first exposure to doing things require the most time and care. Given this, a student needs to give himself a feel of the material by previewing it:

Read the Abstract

If an abstract is available, read it. The abstract is short and compact summary and will provide key insights into the purpose, main points, method, findings, and conclusions. Then read the summary, if there is one.

READ the summary

  • If a nonfiction book summary (different from a an academic book report) is available read it to see what others thought was important, then Scan the reading materials.

Scan the reading materials

  • Skim the introductory, concluding, and or summary paragraphs to get a big picture understanding.
  • Scan the text from beginning to end while paying special attention to headings, subheadings, things in bold or large font and bullet points.
  • Identify transition sentences, examine images or graphs, and note the structure of the text.
  • Read the front and back cover, table of contents and inside flaps.

Strategic Approach

Strategically approach reading to ingest the material efficiently:

  • First, think of what you want to learn by reading the material? Write down some questions to be answered by the end.
  • From the preview, determine the author’s aim in writing the material.
  • Write your own goal. If your goal is more limited in scope than the author’s, find and read the pertinent sections only.
  • Since you are reading a nonfiction book, plan to read certain sections more slowly and carefully than you’d read a work of fiction

Don’t Read Words Singly

  • With the eye being able to span about 1.5 inches (4-5 words) at a time, relaxing your face and expanding your gaze helps you see blocks of words, instead of individual words as distinct units.
  • With good practice, your eyes begin to skip increasingly faster across the page.
  • On nearing the end of a line, allow your peripheral vision to see the last set of words so you can quickly scan across and down into the next line.
  • Do not sub-vocalize – the habit of pronouncing each word in your head as you read it and ‘hearing’ the word in your mind, takes more time than is necessary  and so slows you down
  • Avoid regressing while reading as it makes you lose the flow and structure of the text, thereby decreasing not just speed but comprehension, also, one re-reads when required only.
  • Check regression by using a pointer – your finger, pen or pencil while reading.
  • Note however that when using a pointer to read, the speed at which you read largely depends on the speed at which you move the pointer.

Don’t Read Every Section

  • Unless you’re reading something extremely important, skip the sections that aren’t relevant to your purpose.
  • Reading selectively, digesting only the main points of many texts.

Write A Summary.

  • When you finish reading, start writing the review. Summarize what you read then answer the questions written down before you started reading.
  •  If after the exercise you learn what you were hoping to learn, use some minutes to think and synthesize the information. Write down what you learned for later recall.

Create a mind map

  •   Talk about what you’ve read as it helps to internalize the stuff, enabling you to do and benefit from what you’ve learned.
  • Keep track of main ideas.
  • Take notes in a format that suits the way your mind processes information – in pictures, images, sounds, colors, events, etc.
  • Flip through the pages once more and jot down any other tasks/ideas that come up.

Once a reader attains the skill of speed-reading non-fiction materials or books, speed reading is adaptable to other reading materials like newspapers, letters, e-mails, proposals, periodicals, and reports.

Related References

Skimming, Scanning And Reading

Skimming, Scanning, and Reading
Skimming, Scanning, and Reading

Skimming

Skimming is a reading technique that entails reading only main ideas within a text to get an overall impression of its content. It is not a haphazard process where one places his eyes wherever they fall but entails running ones’ eyes very quickly over large chunks of material to pick up the main ideas and tone without paying attention to details. A single chapter would take only a few minutes. Skimming, therefore, is very apt in:

  • Test reviews.
  • Overview of textbook chapters.
  • Deciding whether a material is necessary.

Although skimming does not read every word, special attention is paid to typographical cues like headings, indenting, boldface and italic type,  bulleted and numbered lists, etc.. Pay special attention to keywords and phrases, people’s names and phrases, nouns, dates and unfamiliar words among others.

When to use:

  • Skim to locate relevant sections from a lot of written materials quickly
  • Skim when there are few headings or graphic elements in a text.

How to skim

For efficient skimming, there must be a structure:

  • Read the title.
  • Read the table of contents or chapter overview to learn the main divisions of ideas.
  • Glance through the profounding headings in each chapter just to see a word or two. Read the headings of charts and tables.
  • Read the entire introductory paragraph and then the first and last sentences only of each following paragraph; read only the first few words of each sentence to locate the main idea.
  • Read the key words indicated in boldface or italics.
  • Significant information is located, stop and read the entire sentence carefully.
  • Read chapter summaries when provided.

Resist the urge to stop and read details you do not need.

If for any reason ( like time factor), you cannot complete the steps above, compromise:

  • Read only the chapter overview and summaries or the summaries and all the boldfaced keywords.

Note, however, that when you skim, you take a calculated risk of missing out something as the main ideas of paragraphs may not always be in the first and last sentences. Nevertheless, any ideas missed may be picked up in a chapter overview or summary.

Like good skimmers, neither skim everything at the same rate nor give equal time to everything. Skimming is usually faster than a person’s reading speed so slow down in areas like:

  • Introductory and concluding paragraphs.
  • Topic sentences.
  • Noticed unfamiliar words.

Scanning

Scanning is a reading technique which enables you to glean specific information from a volume of written materials. It entails sweeping your eyes [like radar] over part of a text in a bid to answering the question in your mind.

How to Scan

Research& Study

In research and study, facts with seemingly no connection to your topic may be hidden within long text passages; such material should first be skimmed to ascertain if it contains some needful information.

Lists of tables should also be skimmed to understand what their organizational structure is: alphabetical, chronological, most-to-least, etc.

After skimming, identify any section{s} of the materials that are useful. With this done, go ahead and scan:

  • Knowing your purpose, determine what clues you need to locate it {decide on a few key words or phrases for use in the search}.
  • Scan only one keyword at a time; multiple keywords need multiple scanning.
  • Rapidly run your eyes down the page until you find the word or phrase you want.
  • When you locate any of your keywords, slow down and carefully read the surrounding materials.

Answering Specific Questions:

In scanning for facts to answer a particular question, the question itself supplies the needed keywords. Follow these steps:

  • Read each question carefully and comprehensively; choose your keywords from it.
  • Look for answers to only one question at a time; scan each keyword separately.
  • On locating a keyword, read the surrounding text carefully to check its relevance.
  • When you think you have found the answer to your question, reread the question to be sure it answers the question precisely.

Scanning requires concentration; you should as such be focused, not letting your attention wander.

Choose a time and place that will help you to shut out all possible distractions while allowing utmost concentration.

Skimming and scanning are no substitutes for thorough reading, should only be used to locate materials quickly.

Differences:

Skimming and scanning use rapid eye movement and keywords to move quickly through texts for slightly different purposes:

  • In skimming, one reads rapidly to get a general overview {bird’s eye view} of the material within a section, but scanning locates {swoops down} on facts when reading.
  • While skimming is used in pre-viewing {reading before you read} and reviewing {reading after you read} to determine the main idea from large sections you do not wish to read thoroughly. Scanning is used in research to find facts, study fact-heavy topics and answer questions requiring factual support.

Advantages:

  • Skimming, though not meant to be used all the time, may save you hours of laborious reading being very useful as a preview to a more detailed reading. It not only tells enough about the general idea and tone of the material, but it also highlights the similarity/difference from other sources thereby helping you to decide whether to read the text.

Reading

Reading an essential skill enables you to learn much of what you need to know. It is also excellent for improving a reader’s general English. Majorly divided into extensive reading which among other things entails reading widely and intensive reading which is concerned with reading texts more carefully and thoroughly again and again.

Unlike skimming, reading neither misses important points nor does it overlook finer shadings of meaning in a material.

In reading, therefore, a reader needs to:

  • Intelligently decide on what to read.
  • Be flexible in the way to read.
  • Know the purpose for every reading.

Related References

Tips and tricks to become an avid reader

Avid Reader
Avid Reader

An avid reader is a person that gets so enchanted in the book they’re examining, their general surroundings obscure and vanishes and they transform into the characters in the book they’re understanding, they are there in the recounted world they’re scrutinizing about.

An avid reader loves to scrutinize, paying little mind to what the class. They read, not because they have to, but instead in light of the way that it’s a need. It’s vital to their well-being. An avid reader gobbles up books like a sugary treat, persistently requiring all the more, neglecting to be satisfied. It looks like a marvelous, gigantic growing hole inside, a dim crevice, a monstrous savage that is perpetually discontent by only a solitary or a couple of books. An avid reader is obliged to continue scrutinizing until the point that the day they pass on. They get this shiver, this slant, this…helpless aching to READ and it never closes.

According to a survey, 28% of adult Americas had not read a single book. Many people spend their time surfing the internet and social media, some of them are busy in their routine life and they actually don’t want to read books. Book reading is very beneficial for our mind, it enhances our knowledge and increases our capabilities to problem-solving in better ways.

Here are some tips for becoming an avid reader.

Tips and tricks to become an avid reader

  • Find our your motivation

Motivation is a precious key. If you are keen towards your motivation than everything will be impressively less difficult. Examining will be something you do effortlessly; it will be your pleasure. On the inverse side, in case you don’t make them everything, will be fundamentally harder. Examining will feel more like errand than charm.

  • Look for topics of your interest

In case you couldn’t think less about it, you’re not going to value examining it. Why misuse your own specific time? This isn’t school; there is no test. There is no official examining list.

Each one of your friends adores Jane Austen? That doesn’t mean you have to love her. Potentially every one of your mates is into sparkly vampires, or energetic mystical performers, or valiant ladies with a thing for bolt based weaponry, yet… that is as of late not addressing you? Don’t worry about it. Start with what claims to you. What do you treasure examining? What do you venerate getting some answers concerning? What do you value doing? What kind of people do you value chatting with? What does focuses you never, ever turned out to be exhausted of?

Scrawl down two or three those and after that go on a book pursue.

  • Increase your curiosity.

If you are intrigued, you don’t need to drive yourself to examine. Or maybe, you should scrutinize because it will satisfy your advantage. To make your advantage, realize that there are many intriguing things in this world that you haven’t the foggiest. Your life will be significant all the more stimulating in case you find them. To be sure, even obviously debilitating things have captivating sides in case you tunnel adequately significant.

  • Show yourself to scrutinize in little tastes and furthermore in long swallows.

At whatever point you have sat still time, paying little respect to whether long or short, fill it with examining. Holding up in the pro’s office could be an average time to examine, so is holding up to stack onto your plane. It infers that you should reliably carry a book with you. Fortunately, that is definitely not hard to do these days: basically, place e-books into your tablet or PDA and you are set.

  • Turn off your television at night

The TV can attract you around night time when you’re exhausted and the likelihood of focusing gives off an impression of being undermining. Regardless, day by day screen time truly keeps you up and it’s adequately sitting still that you don’t see how drained you are. Examining, on the other hand, is an unprecedented way to deal with release up in the wake of a tedious day. No not as much as a few night times seven days, consider scrutinizing instead of sitting before the TV.

  • Pay visits to the library

Books can be expensive and after some time you can end up spending on books. Regardless, luckily, libraries give a scene to examine, and in addition, they empower access to a wide gathering of books that you don’t have to place assets into. If you have to research a particular subject, you can take a gander at a wide variety of books in regards to the issue without blowing a pack of cash.

Benefits of becoming an avid reader

  • It extends your perspective.

Scrutinizing causes you to see the world from another perspective. Notwithstanding different things, it causes you to anticipate new open entryways and risks. You will similarly have the ability to review a condition more decisively.

  • It supports you to be more creative.

By supporting your mind with an extensive variety of contemplations, there is a tolerable shot that your distinctive contemplations will cross-prepare and make fresh musings. You will end up being more imaginative in like manner.

  • It loosens up your mind.

Immersing yourself in a tolerable book looks like review a good film. It can take you to new universes. Such an undertaking is drawing in and loosening up for your mind.

  • Better ideas generating skills

Contemplations are extraordinary. Coherent and mechanical movements rely upon them. Contaminations and world issues are unwound with them. Contemplations can even change our lives.

When you read, you persistently open yourself to new insights. With each one of those insights spinning around your head, you may go and make your own one of a kind dazzling idea.

  • Better thinking

People who read can spot plans more quickly than the people who don’t read.

It keeps your cerebrum sharp and sustains neural associations with each new memory. Toward the day’s end, your mind twists up evidently more grounded and speedier in light of the fact that you read. Reading opens you up to new universes of believability. You may read about new endeavors or strategies for a living – things you never considered doing.

Reading can make you question what you need and re-sort out your targets. You may comprehend you require something you never considered.

On the off chance that you need to have a solid upper hand in this data age, there is no other path yet to read and read. As the world’s economy pushes increasingly toward learning based economy, so will the energy of information increment. You would be wise to develop it now before it’s past the point of no return.

Related References